participatory manage• ment models and the rules and norms established by the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC – Lei #, July 18, ). On July 18, , through Law , the Brazilian Government created the National System of Protected Areas (SNUC, in Portuguese), in order to establish a. 15 mar. Lei nº / – SNUC, a PROGE foi, em casos específicos, consultada sobre a legali- dade de retomada de mineração em Flona, tendo as.
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The national conservation unit system and the wildlife refuge category As 998 the trajectory of the environmental issue discussion, protected areas proliferated worldwide since the s and human presence in CUs became subject of debates.
However, the international debates had some influence in Brazil, so that one 985 the goals of the Second National Development Plan was “achieving development without deteriorating the quality of life and, especially, without devastating the national heritage of natural resources” MEDEIROS,p. This last definition was kept in the SNUC publication.
However, it does not incur in land expropriation as long as the activities conducted within the property are in compliance with the goals of the protected area. Faced with the difficulties in managing CUs of a very complex, unknown and rare category, environmental analysts assigned to federal RVS started, ina movement to discuss the standards and guidelines for the management of this ,ei. Acesso em 23 jun.
A questionnaire comprising 12 questions was sent by email to the key-informant. The authors attribute this progress to the new development ideology in Brazil – since it enabled a political environment conducive to the modernization process that characterized the country at that time – as well as to “the influence and pressure made by organized nature-protection movements, which began to better equip themselves” MEDEIROS,p.
The peculiarity of this category, which is shared only with Natural Monuments, lies on the fact that, by being a full protection category, it does not involve land expropriation once the activities held within the properties are compatible with the Unit creation goals.
This definition was included in Feldmann’s clean bill as “the one that does not involve consumption, collection, damage or destruction of natural resources” SOUZA,Annex A and thus, it was kept in the SNUC publication. According to Medeirosp. The current study comes from an exploratory research GIL, and it has the aim to deepen the knowledge about an underexplored conservation unit category, namely: They seem contradictory, exclusive to each other. Federal RVS creation and management By analyzing the decrees that created the Federal Refuges, it was possible to see that only one of the seven existing refuges has some direct relation to the protection of fauna species among its goals.
The new Constitution was promulgated in and it had a specific chapter on the environment. As for the trajectory of the environmental issue discussion, protected areas proliferated worldwide since the s and human presence in CUs became subject of debates. Quite crowded public hearings were held in six cities during this period. Revista dos Tribunais,p. On the other hand, Derani cited by Medeiros, Irving and Garaypoints out that the Full Protection Units should not be subjected to urbanization or to agriculture.
Finally, the opinions of the federal RVS managers about their view on the category and on some perceptible obstacles to the management of these conservation units were analyzed. It became the basis for developing the “Brazilian Conservation Unit System Plan”, which first stage was published inand the second one, in Efforts to diagnose the productive rationality of landowners inserted in RVS as well as to properly manage – through the expropriations provided by law – the lands where this rationality is not compatible with the CU may constitute the first steps towards the RVS effectiveness.
The decree that created Rio dos Frades RVS refers to the concept of natural monument applied to biological aspects, since it intends to “preserve natural ecosystems of great ecological relevance and scenic beauty”. This change in the RVS definition puts it away from its inspiration sources, as well as from the almost unanimous view that the category would have the primary function of protecting the fauna.
According to the author, the different CU types were born from multiple factors, namely: This shift has important consequences, which we will discussed later.
Also according to Medeirosthe Republican Constitution attributes to natural resources the status sbuc national heritage to be preserved, and it definitely includes the management of protected areas in the Brazilian political agenda.
According to this understanding, this category may have been considered as a sort of Natural Monument i concept applied to the biological context. Based on this survey, the study sought to identify the critical points in the SVR category concept within the SNUC preparation context. These rationalities would be those that coexist with the instrumental rationalities without necessarily submitting to them.
Souza even suggests the category extinction or its displacement to the group of sustainable use conservation units. It is Boa Nova RVS, which, among other goals, seeks to protect viable slender antbird Rhopornis ardesiacus populations. SNUC, in its broad xnuc of CU categories, meets preservationist and socio-environmentalist goals, and it also allows certain flexibility in categories such as RVS.
Protected areas are thus defined by some legal mechanism. Whenever the owner does not give consent to the coexistence between the Wildlife Refuge and the use of the property, the land will be expropriated on behalf of the effective public interest.
This exception was kept in SNUC publication, and the cultivation of compatible plants was also added to it change made by Gabeira’s clean bill.
A CALL FOR REFLECTION ON THE CATEGORY OF WILDLIFE REFUGE CONSERVATION UNIT
Inthe predecessor of the concept of sustainable development emerged in Stockholm. These activities could exist in Sustainable Use CUs, but only in specific situations. In addition, production restrictions should be thoroughly explained to the affected population.
It is worth emphasizing that this concept did not exist at the time conservation units were being discussed and created; the term used at that time was 998 areas. Another innovation from Feldmann’s clean bill in the present case is also extremely relevant for the RVS category analysis.
Methodology The herein presented research encompasses literature review and documentary research, as well as interviews done with a key-informant who participated in decisive moments related to the preparation of the National Conservation Unit System, which is a public policy that set the Wildlife Refuge category in Nunes, Costa and Lustosa contextualized the environmental concern according to the economic dimension, and they generalized the Full Protection CU group, including the RVS, as units where “the presence of permanent populations as well as of economic activities are prohibited” p.
It is worth highlighting that the bill made clear that the Executive Power could limit or prohibit activities in conflict with the RVS creation purposes; however, such an item was deleted in Feldmann’s clean bill and it did not appear in SNUC.
Thus, it would be applied to a context in which it would not be possible to protect the entire system, but only a key aspect of the process. In addition, it is in a way linked to species, rather than to the overall environment, and it is also related to small areas. The study investigated the possible origins of the aforementioned category in the SNUC context as well as the inspirations for its definition.
Brazilian environmental laws and policies: However, the system does not allow such a practice, i. The current study sought to demonstrate that the Cartesian formations and concepts inherent to the contemporary society tend not to allow one to see the possibility of coexistence between the goal of natural resources full protection and the presence of productive human activities.
According to the bill BRASIL,the RVS must ensure conditions for the existence and reproduction of local flora species or communities as well as of resident or migratory fauna.